Category: wfdfymautuvzduuz

Category: wfdfymautuvzduuz Run machine Kohli’s in pursuit of excellence, catch India-WI 3rd ODI…

first_img Cricket WTC Final IND vs NZ: Virat Kohli displays his dancing skills on the beats of Bharat Army’s Dhol; Watch video Cricket WTC Final LIVE: Jamieson says, ‘nice and pleasing to get Virat Kohli’s wicket’; Gill feels India could have got more wickets Run machine Kohli’s in pursuit of excellence, catch India-WI 3rd ODI live Previous articleChina’s Wanda Group says stake sales report ‘inconsistent with the facts’Next articleBasketball legends Jordan, Johnson eye esports investment Kunal DhyaniSports Tech enthusiast, he reports on Sports Tech industry and writes on sports products. WTC Final LIVE: Devon Conway continues red-hot form, slams fifty to provide New Zealand dream start Cricket PSL 2021 Eliminator 1 PES vs KAR LIVE: best way to watch Peshawar Zalmi vs Karachi Kings Live Streaming in your country, India, Follow Live update Cricket by Taboolaby TaboolaSponsored LinksSponsored LinksPromoted LinksPromoted LinksYou May LikeE! OnlineCNN’s Christiane Amanpour Undergoes Surgery After Cancer DiagnosisE! OnlineUndoPhotoStickHow To Back Up All Your Old Photos In SecondsPhotoStickUndoMicrosoftBring your desktop to life with Bing WallpaperMicrosoftUndoEleven players bat in an innings. There are six players who make it to the eleven for their batting acumen. Then there is Kohli who stands apart in his scoring abilities. In 2018, the Don of Delhi has contributed 25.92% of the total ODI runs scored by team India.Kohli had scaled peak 10,000 runs at Visakhapatnam, at Pune Dhoni needs Dhoni needs a mere 31 runs to join his skipper in the ten thousand club.With Bhuvneshwar Kumar and Jasprit Bumrah back in the Indian squad for the 3rd ODI, the Caribbeans will be in for some real test after having pushed the hosts to the wire in the exciting, tied game at Visakhapatnam on Wednesday.Bhubaneswar and Bumrah are expected to be in the starting line-up on Saturday. Team management won’t have problem on taking that call. Mohammad Shami is rested and Umesh Yadav in spite of all his pace and new found nip was somewhat found wanting in the first two ODIs.The third ODI will be played at Pune on Saturday (October 27), followed by the next game on Monday (October 29) at Cricket Club of India’s Brabourne Stadium in Mumbai and the Caribbeans’ last tour game on November 1 (Thursday) at Thiruvananthapuram.Fans can catch all the excitement live on Star Sports 1, Star Sports 1 HD, Star Sports 1 Hindi, Star Sports 1 Hindi HD, Star Sports 1 Tamil and Star India-owned OTT platform HotstarWatch Live: Click here.The squad: Virat Kohli (Captain), Rohit Sharma (vice-captain), Shikhar Dhawan, Ambati Rayudu, Rishabh Pant, MS Dhoni (wicket-keeper), Ravindra Jadeja, Kuldeep Yadav, Yuzvendra Chahal, Bhuvneshwar Kumar, Jasprit Bumrah, Khaleel Ahmed, Umesh Yadav, KL Rahul, Manish Pandey. BCCI Apex Council Meet: BCCI to bid for 3 major global events in next tournament cycle starting from 2024; Check Euro 2020- Switzerland beat Turkey 3-1: Shaqiri’s brace keep Switzerland hopes alive; Turkey face exit from Euros Cricket Share on Facebook Tweet on Twitter Virat Kohli will be back to resume his unfinished task in pursuit of excellence as India and West Indies meet for the third game of the ongoing five-match one-day series at Maharashtra Cricket Association Stadium in Pune.The run-machine is on an auto mode, fuelled by an inspiration to surpass the peaks he has scaled in an impactful journey beyond comparison. Characters like Kohli add excitement to the sport with their fine craftsmanship when there is no prize for guessing the outcome of a game. Facebook Twitter Tokyo Olympics: BCCI provides fuel in Indian Olympic flame, to contribute Rs 10 crore WI vs SA 2nd Test Day 3 Live: South Africa in huge trouble; SA 59/6 (22.3 ov)- Follow Live Updates Cricket TAGS2018 India West Indies SeriesHotstarIndia West Indies 3rd ODIIndia West Indies ODI SeriesStar SportsVirat Kohli SHARE Cricket RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Cricket By Kunal Dhyani – October 26, 2018 YourBump15 Actors That Hollywood Banned For LifeYourBump|SponsoredSponsoredUndoPost FunThese Twins Were Named “Most Beautiful In The World,” Wait Until You See Them TodayPost Fun|SponsoredSponsoredUndoDefinitionTime Was Not Kind To These 28 CelebritiesDefinition|SponsoredSponsoredUndoDaily FunnyFemale Athlete Fails You Can’t Look Away FromDaily Funny|SponsoredSponsoredUndoDefinitionMost Embarrassing Mistakes Ever Made In HistoryDefinition|SponsoredSponsoredUndoMisterStoryWoman Files For Divorce After Seeing This Photo – Can You See Why?MisterStory|SponsoredSponsoredUndo Football Latest Sports News WTC Final Day 3 Stumps: India remove Conway and Latham but Kiwis on top; NZ 101/2 (49 ovs) trail by 116 runs CricketLatest Sports NewsSports BusinessNewsSport PSL 2021 Qualifier 1 ISL vs MUL LIVE: best way to watch Islamabad United vs Multan Sultans Live Streaming in your country, India, Follow…last_img read more

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Category: wfdfymautuvzduuz Eveready East Africa Limited (EVRD.ke) 2012 Annual Report

first_imgEveready East Africa Limited (EVRD.ke) listed on the Nairobi Securities Exchange under the Industrial holding sector has released it’s 2012 annual report.For more information about Eveready East Africa Limited (EVRD.ke) reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the Eveready East Africa Limited (EVRD.ke) company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: Eveready East Africa Limited (EVRD.ke)  2012 annual report.Company ProfileEveready East Africa Limited manufactures and markets a range of portable power products in Kenya as well as exports products to countries in the East Africa sub-region. Its extensive product range includes dry cell and carbon zinc primary, alkaline and rechargeable batteries; flashlights and portable lanterns; automotive batteries, and CFL and incandescent bulbs sold under the Turbo brand name. Eveready East Africa has a division which supplies batteries and accessories for motor vehicles and trucks. A side division manufactures and sells a range of washing detergents, household bleaches, surface cleaners and fabric softeners under the Clorox and Everclean brands. Formerly known as Eveready East Africa Limited, the company changed its name to Eveready East Africa Plc in 2016. The company head office is in Nairobi, Kenya. Eveready East Africa Limited is listed on the Nairobi Securities Exchangelast_img read more

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Category: wfdfymautuvzduuz Carbacid Investments Limited (CARB.ke) 2013 Abridged Report

first_imgCarbacid Investments Plc (CARB.ke) listed on the Nairobi Securities Exchange under the Industrial holding sector has released it’s 2013 abridged results.For more information about Carbacid Investments Plc (CARB.ke) reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the Carbacid Investments Plc (CARB.ke) company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: Carbacid Investments Plc (CARB.ke)  2013 abridged results.Company ProfileCarbacid (CO²) Investments Plc is a leading producer of natural food grade carbon dioxide in East Africa. The company extracts carbon dioxide gas from natural underground reservoirs which are purified on site to produce natural, certified food grade (99.99% purity) for use in carbonate water, soft drinks and alcoholic beverages. The CO² is Halaal certified. Compressed carbon dioxide sold by Carbacid Investments Limited is used by the industry sector for MIG welding and applications for fire extinguishers. Formerly a sub-division of BEA Sawmills Limited, the company was founded in 1975 through various mergers and acquisitions and renamed Carbacid Investments Limited. It supplies major drinks bottlers and breweries in Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Ethiopia, Southern Sudan, Somaliland, Malawi, Zambia, Rwanda and Burundi. Carbacid Investments Plc is listed on the Nairobi Securities Exchangelast_img read more

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Category: wfdfymautuvzduuz Why I’d invest all I could in this high yielding share

first_img I would like to receive emails from you about product information and offers from The Fool and its business partners. Each of these emails will provide a link to unsubscribe from future emails. More information about how The Fool collects, stores, and handles personal data is available in its Privacy Statement. See all posts by Andy Ross FTSE 100 companies are paying record dividends. The average yield across all 100 companies is now over 4%, which is good for investors looking for income now, but there is a catch. Falling dividend cover – the amount of earnings needed to sustainably pay out dividends to investors – has tended to fall.However, I think there’s one share that combines great, sustainable income, with the potential for growth – a combination that I think will help any investor make money. That company is insurer Admiral (LSE: ADM).5G is here – and shares of this ‘sleeping giant’ could be a great way for you to potentially profit!According to one leading industry firm, the 5G boom could create a global industry worth US$12.3 TRILLION out of thin air…And if you click here we’ll show you something that could be key to unlocking 5G’s full potential…Rewarding investorsThe dividend is far above the FTSE 100 average at around 5.5% when you include special dividends. It’s one of the big attractions of buying into the share price. That’s even more the case if for some reason the shares drop in the near term, which will push the yield up further.Admiral has a good track record of paying a dividend. The exact yield fluctuates with the share price, but is typically near to 6% – as it is now. Obviously the share price affects exactly what yield you get, but you can be confident that it’ll be higher than average.The other good news regarding the dividend is that it has historically tended to be well covered by earnings – often by 1.5x or more. What this means is there’s no immediate prospect of the dividend being cut. All being well with the business, the dividend should keep on growing. Between 2014 and 2018, the payout went from 98.4p to 126p, which is quite a jump.A lot to likeThings are going well at the insurer and there’s certainly more to the investment case than just the juicy dividend.This month, Admiral pleased investors with an upbeat trading update. It revealed annual profit would be higher than it had previously expected. This is a result of lower motor injury claims. The FTSE 100 company said it expected pre-tax profit for the year to the end of December to be between £510m and £540m, an increase of between 6% and 13% from the year before.The improved outlook marks a big improvement for the group. The results released in August last year were far gloomier. Back then changes to the Ogden rate were costing the insurer much more money – in the first half, it cost it £33m. The improved tone is very welcome and a good sign for investors.With the group also expanding into comparison websites, loans and international car insurance, there’s plenty of room for growth at Admiral in the future, I feel. I think the combination of income and growth potential and the way Admiral has been a well-run business for a long time all combine to make it a potentially very profitable investment and it’s one high-yielding share I think has a very bright future. Click here to claim your copy now — and we’ll tell you the name of this Top US Share… free of charge! Andy Ross | Tuesday, 18th February, 2020 | More on: ADM Image source: Getty Images. I’m sure you’ll agree that’s quite the statement from Motley Fool Co-Founder Tom Gardner.But since our US analyst team first recommended shares in this unique tech stock back in 2016, the value has soared.What’s more, we firmly believe there’s still plenty of upside in its future. In fact, even throughout the current coronavirus crisis, its performance has been beating Wall St expectations.And right now, we’re giving you a chance to discover exactly what has got our analysts all fired up about this niche industry phenomenon, in our FREE special report, A Top US Share From The Motley Fool. “This Stock Could Be Like Buying Amazon in 1997”center_img Why I’d invest all I could in this high yielding share Renowned stock-picker Mark Rogers and his analyst team at The Motley Fool UK have named 6 shares that they believe UK investors should consider buying NOW.So if you’re looking for more stock ideas to try and best position your portfolio today, then it might be a good day for you. Because we’re offering a full 33% off your first year of membership to our flagship share-tipping service, backed by our ‘no quibbles’ 30-day subscription fee refund guarantee. Simply click below to discover how you can take advantage of this. Enter Your Email Address Our 6 ‘Best Buys Now’ Shares Andy Ross owns no share mentioned. The Motley Fool UK has recommended Admiral Group. Views expressed on the companies mentioned in this article are those of the writer and therefore may differ from the official recommendations we make in our subscription services such as Share Advisor, Hidden Winners and Pro. Here at The Motley Fool we believe that considering a diverse range of insights makes us better investors.last_img read more

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Category: wfdfymautuvzduuz I think Scottish Mortgage Investment Trust is a FTSE 100 bargain so I’m buying

first_img Renowned stock-picker Mark Rogers and his analyst team at The Motley Fool UK have named 6 shares that they believe UK investors should consider buying NOW.So if you’re looking for more stock ideas to try and best position your portfolio today, then it might be a good day for you. Because we’re offering a full 33% off your first year of membership to our flagship share-tipping service, backed by our ‘no quibbles’ 30-day subscription fee refund guarantee. Tom Rodgers | Wednesday, 26th February, 2020 | More on: SMT Simply click below to discover how you can take advantage of this. Tom Rodgers owns shares in Scottish Mortgage Investment Trust. The Motley Fool UK has no position in any of the shares mentioned. Views expressed on the companies mentioned in this article are those of the writer and therefore may differ from the official recommendations we make in our subscription services such as Share Advisor, Hidden Winners and Pro. Here at The Motley Fool we believe that considering a diverse range of insights makes us better investors. I would like to receive emails from you about product information and offers from The Fool and its business partners. Each of these emails will provide a link to unsubscribe from future emails. More information about how The Fool collects, stores, and handles personal data is available in its Privacy Statement. Enter Your Email Address See all posts by Tom Rodgers The Scottish Mortgage Investment Trust (LSE:SMT) is now available at a large discount and in my view is a great buying opportunity. The shares are on offer at a price 2.3% below the net asset value of the companies it holds. This FTSE 100 investment trust offers a different prospect to buying individual company shares. Adding SMT to your portfolio means you get exposure to some of the world’s best technology stocks.5G is here – and shares of this ‘sleeping giant’ could be a great way for you to potentially profit!According to one leading industry firm, the 5G boom could create a global industry worth US$12.3 TRILLION out of thin air…And if you click here we’ll show you something that could be key to unlocking 5G’s full potential…These include Amazon, Tesla and Spotify. Also in the mix is Dutch semiconductor giant ASML. It manufacturers computer chips that power millions of devices worldwide for the likes of Intel and Samsung.It means you can own a slice of the the world’s fastest-growing shares in your Stocks and Shares ISA or SIPP. All this without having to go through the hassle of filling out reams of paperwork dealing with significant additional charges.Growing in strengthSince I last covered SMT in October 2019, the value of stocks and shares owned by the fund has grown from £7.7bn to £9bn.Baillie Gifford operates SMT and is one of the world’s biggest asset managers. Joint fund managers James Anderson and Tom Slater don’t just pick big companies and hold them forever. These are no overpaid operators creaming off millions in fees with one eye on the exit. They have proved in recent years that they will drop stocks if they’re underperforming.Video starFor example, Anderson and Slater sold their holdings of NASDAQ-listed Baidu last year. They assessed the online search giant and saw it being overtaken by WeChat. Digging further, they found that its billionaire chief executive Robin Li turned down a chance to get into short-form video.This might not sound like much. But Li’s refusal to see the writing on the wall meant the astonishing rise of ByteDance, which owns video sharing app TikTok. If you have children you will probably have heard of this platform.TikTok is now challenging Facebook for dominance in the video space and according to TechCrunch has over 800 million daily users while its revenue increased 300% in Q4 2019.Not public but profitableSMT is able to own a slice of ByteDance even though its shares are not publicly listed on any stock exchange. In fact, 21% of the portfolio is made up of companies whose shares aren’t available to retail investors. And yet there’s no need to miss out. We can still grab a slice of the rapid growth of tech unicorns by investing in SMT.You’ll pay ongoing charges of 0.37% per year, which in my view is very cheap. Most of all, the investment trust is a low-cost, low-effort entry point for investors who want to diversify worldwide.While fears about the spread of coronavirus mean the share prices of 87 of the 100 largest UK companies have fallen recently, this market plunge has shone a spotlight on some great opportunities. Follow Warren Buffett’s advice: keep your cool and “be greedy when others are fearful” and I suggest you’ll find significant long-term profits.center_img I think Scottish Mortgage Investment Trust is a FTSE 100 bargain so I’m buying Our 6 ‘Best Buys Now’ Shares Click here to claim your copy now — and we’ll tell you the name of this Top US Share… free of charge! Image source: Getty Images. I’m sure you’ll agree that’s quite the statement from Motley Fool Co-Founder Tom Gardner.But since our US analyst team first recommended shares in this unique tech stock back in 2016, the value has soared.What’s more, we firmly believe there’s still plenty of upside in its future. In fact, even throughout the current coronavirus crisis, its performance has been beating Wall St expectations.And right now, we’re giving you a chance to discover exactly what has got our analysts all fired up about this niche industry phenomenon, in our FREE special report, A Top US Share From The Motley Fool. “This Stock Could Be Like Buying Amazon in 1997”last_img read more

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Category: wfdfymautuvzduuz M2 House / monovolume architecture + design

first_imgCopySave this picture!SectionThe project M2 at Bozen-Moritzing is a Klimahouse A which hosts two accommodations on separate floors. Because of his punctuated facade in the north and the east it seems closed to the access road. The plastered basement serves as pedestal for the smaller upper floor, which is covered by cladding sheets. To the garden – towards the south and the west – the house opens because of a generous glass façade.Save this picture!© M&H PhotostudioThe two flats are protected against strong insolation in summer by overhanging roofs. The ceiling of the basement serves to the upper floor as a roof terrace, whereas on the roof of the upper floor is the photo-voltaic plant. Projects Architects: monovolume architecture + design Area Area of this architecture project Manufacturers: Swisspearl Products translation missing: en-US.post.svg.material_description M2 House / monovolume architecture + design M2 House / monovolume architecture + designSave this projectSaveM2 House / monovolume architecture + designSave this picture!© M&H PhotostudioHouses•Bolzano – Bozen, Italy Save this picture!© M&H PhotostudioThe apartments have a direct access from the underground car park.Save this picture!© M&H PhotostudioA continuous wall, which passes parallel to the exterior walls, separates the night area from the day area, which is turned to the glass façade. Save this picture!© M&H PhotostudioThis creates a clear separation in areas with different lighting qualities.Save this picture!© M&H PhotostudioProject gallerySee allShow lessA Crash Course on Modern Architecture (Part 1)Architecture NewsFlemish Barn Bolberg / arend groenewegen architectSelected Projects Share “COPY” Photographs 2012 CopyAbout this officemonovolume architecture + designOfficeFollowProductConcrete#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousesBolzano – BozenHousesItalyPublished on May 06, 2013Cite: “M2 House / monovolume architecture + design” 06 May 2013. ArchDaily. Accessed 11 Jun 2021. ISSN 0719-8884Read commentsBrowse the CatalogSinkshansgroheBathroom Mixers – MetrisVinyl Walls3MVinyl Finish – DI-NOC™ EffectPartitionsSkyfoldIntegrating Operable Walls in a SpaceBricksEndicottBrick Facade at the Bruce Nesbitt African American Cultural CenterBathroom FurnitureBradley Corporation USAToilet Partition CubiclesSkylightsLAMILUXGlass Skylight F100 CircularLightsLouis PoulsenOutdoor Lighting – Flindt GardenRailing / BalustradesSolarluxBalcony Glazing – SL 60eUrban ShadingPunto DesignPublic Architecture in Residential ComplexDoorsLinvisibileLinvisibile Products in Palazzo VolpiChairshorgenglarusUpholstered Chair – diva 5-154Wall / Ceiling LightsHE WilliamsLED Downlight – 4DR RoundMore products »Read commentsSave世界上最受欢迎的建筑网站现已推出你的母语版本!想浏览ArchDaily中国吗?是否翻译成中文现有为你所在地区特制的网站?想浏览ArchDaily中国吗?Take me there »✖You’ve started following your first account!Did you know?You’ll now receive updates based on what you follow! Personalize your stream and start following your favorite authors, offices and users.Go to my stream Year:  ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/368847/m2-house-monovolume-architecture-design Clipboard Houses Products used in this ProjectFiber Cements / CementsSwisspearlSwisspearl Largo Fiber Cement Panels+ 29 Share ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/368847/m2-house-monovolume-architecture-design Clipboard ArchDaily Italy Area:  190 m² Year Completion year of this architecture project “COPY” Photographs:  M&H Photostudio Manufacturers Brands with products used in this architecture project last_img read more

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Category: wfdfymautuvzduuz Malls galore

Tagged with: Digital AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis About Howard Lake Howard Lake is a digital fundraising entrepreneur. Publisher of UK Fundraising, the world’s first web resource for professional fundraisers, since 1994. Trainer and consultant in digital fundraising. Founder of Fundraising Camp and co-founder of GoodJobs.org.uk. Researching massive growth in giving. Howard Lake | 8 November 1999 | News Malls galore  19 total views,  1 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis There are a growing number of portals and malls offering to raise funds for or handle online donations to non-profits in the USA. Read Kathi Black’s summary of these Online Do-Gooders in The Industry Standard of 4 October 1999. read more

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Category: wfdfymautuvzduuz Farm Bureau Urges Support for Legislation to Strengthen Technical Education

first_img SHARE SHARE Previous articleMany U.S. Governors Strongly Support TPP but Not PenceNext articleShort Term Dryness Causing Concern Hoosier Ag Today By Hoosier Ag Today – Aug 3, 2016 Facebook Twitter Farm Bureau Urges Support for Legislation to Strengthen Technical Education The American Farm Bureau Federation is urging lawmakers to support the Strengthening Career and Technical Education for the 21st Century Act. The bill reauthorizes the Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Act. In a letter sent to House lawmakers, AFBF encouraged reauthorization of the bill because, as Farm Bureau says, career and technical education as well as post-high school job training and retraining are essential to the economic viability of rural communities. Farm Bureau President Zippy Duvall says “a skilled workforce is needed in rural America, just as it is in urban and suburban communities.” Duvall pointed out the bill would provide agriculture education programs the funding assistance needed to create a well-rounded, practical approach to learning through classroom education.The House Committee on Education and the Workforce approved the bill earlier this month. However, both chambers of Congress remain in recess until after Labor Day.Source: NAFB News Service Home Indiana Agriculture News Farm Bureau Urges Support for Legislation to Strengthen Technical Education Facebook Twitterlast_img read more

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Category: wfdfymautuvzduuz Kilmacrennan family left shaken after man tries to enter home

first_img News, Sport and Obituaries on Monday May 24th Loganair’s new Derry – Liverpool air service takes off from CODA Google+ Facebook Arranmore progress and potential flagged as population grows Facebook RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Previous articleRobbery at bookmaker’s premises in DerryNext articleQuestions raised by sisters abused by priest in the 1970s News Highland AudioHomepage BannerNews Nine til Noon Show – Listen back to Monday’s Programme Community Enhancement Programme open for applications Twittercenter_img A family in Kilmacrennan has been left badly shaken after a man attempted to gain entry to their home on Christmas Eve. Gardaí at Milford are investigating the burglary which happened at Ballyboe, Kilmacrennan shortly before midnight on Tuesday of last week.The scene is located approximately 1 km from the Millbridge shop which is on the main road from Kilmacrennan to Letterkenny.Garda Niall McGuire says this is a very serious incident with Gardai keen to find the man responsible:Audio Playerhttp://www.highlandradio.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/kilmacburg1pm-2.mp300:0000:0000:00Use Up/Down Arrow keys to increase or decrease volume. WhatsApp By News Highland – January 2, 2020 Google+ Important message for people attending LUH’s INR clinic WhatsApp Kilmacrennan family left shaken after man tries to enter home Twitter Pinterest Pinterestlast_img read more

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Category: wfdfymautuvzduuz New order

first_img Comments are closed. TheCourt of Appeal has issued new guidelines to limit the time and financialdamage done to employers and defendants in vexatious litigation cases. Colin GibsonreportsEmployersoften spend considerable time and money dealing with vexatious litigants –individuals, with no legal representation, who abuse the court system in thehope of settling a personal grudge against the company. These people appeal andre-litigate repeatedly even though their claims are doomed to failure. Traditionally,the courts have done their best to give these litigants a fair hearingregardless of the hopelessness of their claims. Butthe Court of Appeal has finally run out of patience. In Bhamjee v Forstick andOthers (No 2) the Court of Appeal, having recognised the inconvenience causedto both courts and defendants by these repeat litigants, produced newguidelines to limit this damage. These guidelines were created primarily toprotect the court but will be welcomed by employers, and any other parties,dealing with vexatious litigants.Whoare vexatious litigants?Vexatiouslitigants are individuals who bring court proceedings repeatedly, or appealrepeatedly in existing proceedings, with claims based on the same facts oragainst the same people. The claim will have no chance of succeeding andvarious tribunals, courts and appeal courts will have told the litigant this onnumerous occasions. LordBingham CJ described vexatious claims as follows: “The hallmark of a vexatiousproceeding is, in my judgment, that it has little or no basis in law (or atleast no discernable basis); that, whatever the intention of the proceeding maybe, its effect is to subject the defendant to inconvenience, harassment andexpense out of all proportion to any gain likely to accrue to the claimant; andthat it involves an abuse of the process of the court.”Attackfrom a persistent serial litigant is stressful, time-consuming and expensivefor employers. Employees of the target company may spend hundreds of hoursfielding litigation and subject access requests under the Data Protection Act.These employees may even find that they are added to the litigation. Thejudiciary and court administrative staff also spend significant amounts of timedealing with serial litigants. And ironically, legal fees spent dealing withthese vexatious claims are often not recoverable as the litigant can rarelyafford to pay them. Theneed to consider all claims fairly, in the interests of justice, has madedealing with vexatious litigants difficult. But this need must be balancedagainst the desire to prevent defendants and the courts suffering majorinconvenience at the hands of serial litigants. The question is where thebalance should be struck. Before the case of Ismail Abdullah Bhamjee theadvantage appeared to fall with the vexatious litigant.TheBhamjee caseTheBhamjee case presents a classic example of the vexatious litigant. It began inDecember 1999 after a planning inspector upheld a local authority’s denial ofBhamjee’s request to use his rear yard for car washing, valeting and servicing,carpet upholstery, cleaning and the pumping out of flood water. Bhamjeemade multiple applications, involving numerous parties, in respect of thisdecision and in a separate claim against Norwich Union Insurance Company, upuntil May 2003. During this period, he paid the Court of Appeal six visits (asthe Court described the hearings).Havingexhausted his options with the planning inspector and the Norwich Union,Bhamjee went on to issue proceedings against the barristers who acted againsthim in the litigation. The proceedings were, unsurprisingly, dismissed soBhamjee paid a further visit to the Court of Appeal.Itwas after this appeal was dismissed that a three-judge Court of Appeal wasconvened to work out what could be done to stop Bhamjee and his seriallitigation attempts. At the same time, the Court of Appeal reviewed the lawconcerning vexatious litigants in general.Thecourts’ approach pre-Bhamjee Traditionally,the courts have used a combination of harsh statutory sanction and vague commonlaw remedies. The power to make a Civil Proceedings Order (CPO), under Section42 of the Supreme Court Act 1981, has always been viewed as a last resort. Themain features of a CPO are as follows:–Only the attorney-general, or someone acting on his behalf, can apply for a CPO–A CPO can only be made where the litigant has “habitually and persistently andwithout any reasonable ground” instituted “vexatious civil proceedings” or“vexatious applications”–A CPO forbids the vexatious litigant from starting or continuing any proceedingwithout the High Court’s permission–The High Court must be convinced that there are reasonable grounds for theproceedings or application and that they do not represent an abuse of processbefore permission will be granted–A CPO will last indefinitely unless given an “expiry date”–If the High Court refuses permission there is no right of appeal.TheCPO sounds like an ideal weapon for fighting the vexatious litigant. However,it has been viewed as draconian and rarely used. It should be noted that thedefendant to a vexatious proceeding cannot decide to apply for a CPO – only theattorney-general has this power.Thecourt has had an inherent power to prevent abuses of process and has developedways of doing this through case law. For example, the Grepe v Loam orderprevented the litigant from making further applications in a particular set ofexisting proceedings without first obtaining the court’s permission.Anextended version of the order could be made in more severe cases. Thisprevented the litigant from taking any step, including issuing new proceedings,in any court against a particular set of defendants or stemming from certainfacts. The courts were also free to add further conditions to these orders,where necessary. Unfortunately, the courts have been reluctant to issue theseorders.Freshimpetus neededClearly,the courts have not fully used the available measures for dealing with seriallitigants. They have generally taken the time to listen carefully to thelitigant’s claim or application before dismissing it, hoping this will give thelitigant some sort of closure.Butthe litigant will have caused both the courts and the defendant considerableinconvenience, and expense in the case of the defendant, on the way to thehearing of the claim or application. The defendant can obtain a costs order atthe hearing but these are often not worth enforcing if the litigant in questionhas no money.InBhamjee, the Court of Appeal took two significant steps forward:–The pulling together of current law by re-naming the existing range of ordersand adding a new order to the arsenal–The Court of Appeal has encouraged the courts to use these newly-named orderswithout delay and make them of their own motion where appropriate.  Thesecond point is the most important. The courts must become proactive in usingthe new range of orders to stop serial litigants clogging up the court systeminstead of allowing them to abuse the system at the expense and inconvenienceof others.Thenew range of ordersThisrange of orders is not completely new as some of them had already grown out ofcase law. But what the Court of Appeal has done in Bhamjee, is give the ordersnew names and guidelines for their use.Theorders open to the courts when dealing with a vexatious litigant are:–Striking out under CPR 3.3 and 3.4Courtstaff should refer a claim or application, which appears to be vexatious, to ajudge who can then decide whether it should be struck out as entirely withoutmerit. A national register of these strikeout orders has been suggested by theCourt of Appeal.–Civil Restraint Order (CRO)Thiswas formerly a Grepe v Loam order. A CRO may be issued by any judge, of his orher own motion, and bars the litigant from making any further applications inthe same matter without getting the court’s permission first. The CRO will lastas long as the proceedings are pending.–Extended Civil Restraint Order (E-CRO)TheE-CRO was previously known as an extended Grepe v Loam order. This orderextends the provisions of the CRO by preventing the issue of new proceedingsagainst certain defendants or with regards to a certain set of facts. This typeof order can be made at Court of Appeal, High Court or county court level andcan be made to cover the court making it and any lower court.Itis a severe order so should not be made for any longer than two years. TheCourt of Appeal’s view on the use of these orders is clear: “Because thenuisance represented by vexatious litigants is steadily increasing, we considerthat the courts should now be more willing to make extended civil restraintorders.”Forthe record, Bhamjee was made the subject of a two-year extended civil restraintorder with a civil proceedings order on the way.–General Civil Restraint Order (G-CRO) This is a completely new order that theCourt of Appeal introduced in Bhamjee. If the activities of a serial litigantare seriously draining a court’s resources, the judge can use this order tostop him or her from starting any action or making any application in thatparticular court without its permission.Theorder is not restricted to proceedings/applications against a specific group ofpeople or regarding specific facts. Again, it should not last for longer thantwo years.–No appealTheCourt of Appeal finally considered what should happen if a litigant, who issubject to an E-CRO or G-CRO, applies for permission to proceed over and overagain and is denied for the same reasons each time. Following Bhamjee, thecourt would be able to order that a decision denying permission is final andmay not be appealed.Howeffective will the new orders be?TheCourt of Appeal’s judgment in Bhamjee clarified and extended the range oforders that a court can use to deal with vexatious litigants. But, moreimportantly, the Court of Appeal has also encouraged the lower courts to makefull use of these orders.TheMaster of the Rolls has recommended that courts strike out claims they considerto be utterly misconceived without further consideration. He also recommendsthat judges bar individuals from further litigious activity, unless permissionis given, if they consider them sufficiently troublesome. The individual mayeither be barred from a certain set of proceedings or completely.Theseguidelines were produced primarily to protect the court but should also be usedby the court, and requested by defendants and their legal representatives, tosave defendants from harassment by vexatious litigants. Thegood news for employers faced with vexatious litigants is that the new orderscan be requested by the parties to an action, unlike the traditional CPO, whichcan only be requested by the attorney-general. Employersfacing these nuisance claims from disgruntled employees should ask theirlawyers if a CRO would be appropriate. Following Bhamjee, the answer is morelikely to be yes.ColinGibson is a commercial litigation lawyer at Field Fisher Waterhouse Previous Article Next Article New orderOn 1 Nov 2003 in Vexatious claims, Personnel Today Related posts:No related photos.last_img read more

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