MUSCADINES can be a sweet fall treat. Pruning now can help ensure a bountiful crop next fall. USDA photo If you want your muscadines to grow more grapes and less tangled vines this summer, this winter is an important time for you, says a University of Georgia expert. “Muscadines grow so vigorously every season the vines can get very congested if they go unpruned,” said Gerard Krewer, an Extension Service horticulturist with the UGA College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. Late January and February, Krewer said, are prime time for muscadine pruning. “You can prune muscadines anytime they’re dormant,” he said. “But in late winter the vines are less likely to be cold-damaged after you prune.” Muscadines, Krewer said, produce most of their flower-bearing shoots from the lower part of the previous year’s growth. So the lower section — the first two to four buds — of that part of the vine that grew during 1998 will wind up growing the shoots and blooms and, ultimately, the grapes of ’99. That’s how you prune your muscadines. The part of the vine that grew after those first two to four buds of ’98 is unneeded growth. Cut that off. Start at the tip of each shoot, Krewer said, and follow it back to the first raised bump on the stem, the “collar” that marks where last year’s growth began. That should be anywhere from six inches to five feet from the tip. When you come to the “collar” where the ’98 growth begins, back up to the second to fourth bud and make your pruning cut. The vines may “bleed,” or ooze sap, Krewer said. But that won’t harm the plants. Pruning will keep your vines from getting unmanageably tangled over the years. Perhaps more important, it will also assure you of more reliable crops of grapes. “If you let muscadines go unpruned,” Krewer said, “they tend to produce too heavily, which leads into alternate bearing. That becomes a feast-or-famine kind of production.” If you’ve let your muscadines go unpruned long enough that they’re a tangled mess already, consider cutting them back to the original cane running down the wire. If you do that, though, you won’t have grapes this year, since this year’s grapes will grow only on shoots that emerge from 1998 buds. “Unless you’re willing to almost forgo a crop next year,” Krewer said, “I would suggest pruning one side back to the original cane and the other side back to the bottom two to four buds of 1998 growth. “Then the following winter you can do the reverse,” he said. “Severely prune the other side. In that way you’ll have grapes each year and still be able to clean up your vines by next winter.” On overgrown arbors, where you have seven or eight major canes, “you might want to take out one or two large canes each year,” he said, “That way you can completely renovate the arbor in a few years. “Each year, be sure to cut the previous season’s growth back to two to four buds,” he said. “That will keep the arbor from becoming overgrown again.”
Tag: 夜上海论坛VN Enact policies to cut income inequality
The impact of U.S. tax policy over the past several decades suggests that any version of the Republican tax reform plan will ultimately result in benefits to the wealthiest Americans at the expense of less-fortunate Americans. Consider the following facts regarding recent historical trends in income inequality, wealth concentration and poverty levels. Categories: Letters to the Editor, Opinion Congressional Budget Office data show that income inequality in America has increased steadily over the past four decades. During this time span, income gains by the top 1 percent of Americans have been about five times greater than the income gains of the remaining 99 percent. Moreover, during this period, wealth concentration for the top 1 percent has risen from 25 percent to 39 percent of the country’s total wealth.Our status in the context of economic equity on the international level is a reason for embarrassment. A report by the World Economic Forum ranked the United States 23rd out of 30 developed nations in terms of economic equity, a reflection of our high levels of income inequality and wealth concentration. Over the past two decades, the number of Americans living in poverty has increased from about 36 million to about 41 million. An analysis by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) showed that our poverty rate placed us among developed nations with the highest poverty rates such as Turkey and Mexico. Moreover, a recent UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund) report ranked the United States 36th out 41 developed countries regarding childhood poverty and wellbeing. We are a country of enormous wealth and resources, and if we truly desire to “make America great again,” we should enact policies to reduce income inequality, wealth concentration, and poverty levels.Don SteinerNiskayunaMore from The Daily Gazette:Niskayuna girls’ cross country wins over BethlehemEDITORIAL: Urgent: Today is the last day to complete the censusEDITORIAL: Find a way to get family members into nursing homesPuccioni’s two goals help Niskayuna boys’ soccer top Shaker, remain perfectEDITORIAL: Beware of voter intimidation
The Red Devils are facing a threat from their own fans who have become extremely angry at the Glazer family’s lack of investment in the rebuilding the squad.After the appointment of new boss Louis van Gaal supporters were expecting an influx of players this summer, especially after executive chairman Ed Woodward claimed they are willing to break the bank for star names.However with only 10 days left in the transfer market, United’s only main signings have been £28million midfielder Ander Herrera from Athletic Bilbao and £30million Southampton left-back Luke Shaw.The supporters are therefore furious that heading into the new campaign, United have still yet to resolve their transfers when they were led to believe that most of the key targets would have been brought to the club before the season kicked off last weekend.And after another dismal performance in the Premier League – losing 2-1 to Swansea at Old Trafford – social media has been swarmed by #GlazerOut messages.“United supporters worldwide have hit out in huge numbers against the Glazer family’s ownership of Manchester United via Twitter and Facebook,” said Sean Bones, member of the Man United Supporters’ Trust. “It’s obviously something that will be a huge concern to the current sponsors who have invested a lot of money in Manchester United as a brand.“There will be a lot of attention to see how the New York Stock Exchange views the negative reaction by supporters in terms of the Glazers’ handling of United.”Man United are currently linked with moves for Argentine duo Marcos Rojo and Angel Di Maria, who they are hoping to sign before September 1st.