Today’s “Behind Enemy Lines” features questions posed to Paul Kuharsky, who covered the Tennessee Titans and the AFC South for The Tennessean and ESPN.com for more than 20 years before starting his own Titans-based web site PaulKuharsky.com. He is also a radio host for The Midday 1880 since 2012.In 1995, Kuharsky covered the Raiders for the Oakland Tribune during the season where they were practicing in El Segundo but playing their games in Oakland. An East Coast native, Kuharsky asked …
Tag: 上海品茶夜网 Big Science Wobbles on Trust
Fixing the gap between the ideal and the real will require factors outside of science, like honesty.“Physician, heal thyself.” We know the proverb from Jesus’ quotation of it in Luke 4:23. Science has a similar challenge: ‘Science, heal your trust issues by the scientific method.’ A simplistic view of science, called scientism, asserts that the only reliable knowledge comes through the scientific method. If that were true, a scientist could go into the lab, work a method, and find a solution to fix scientific reliability. A little reflection, though, shows that this could only be trusted if the scientist were reliable already. Scientism suffers from self-refutation. It cannot be verified by the scientific method; therefore, it is not reliable.The Big Science journals sometimes admit their failings, as in these recent examples:Progress on reproducibility (Jeremy Berg in Science Magazine). The “reproducibility crisis” has been bemoaned for years now (e.g., 6/03/17 and back to 9/05/15). In this article, we see the venerable American journal admitting it has egg on its face, and has had to take steps to shore up its reputation.Ideas supported by well-defined and clearly described methods and evidence are one of the cornerstones of science. After several publications indicated that a substantial number of scientific reports may not be readily reproducible, the scientific community and public began engaging in discussions about mechanisms to measure and enhance the reproducibility of scientific projects. In this context, several innovative steps have been taken in recent years. The results of these efforts confirm that improving reproducibility will require persistent and adaptive responses, and as we gain experience, implementation of the best possible practices.Are “adaptive responses” evolutionary? If so (as today’s scientific materialists insist), there is no hope for change unless a mutation for integrity gets naturally selected and sweeps through the population of researchers. And how do materialists measure “best possible practices”? The statement presupposes morality. Evolution provides no “mechanism” to ensure scientific integrity, if a majority of researchers gain a reproductive advantage by cheating.Berg’s list of initiatives that Science and other institutions are undertaking has all the marks of a solution wrought by a committee. It looks good on paper, but will it change human habits subject to various forces, like ‘publish or perish,’ rivalry, and lobbying efforts for funding that contribute to sloppy work? Berg’s ending sounds like a committee report:As this new year moves forward, the editors of Science hope for continued progress toward strong policies and cultural adjustments across research ecosystems that will facilitate greater transparency, research reproducibility, and trust in the robustness and self-correcting nature of scientific results.This admits that science has not been self-correcting up till now. Berg is asking the public to trust what has not been trustworthy.The science that’s never been cited (Richard Van Noorden in Nature). This interesting article demythologizes an intuition about science: i.e., that the best work rises to the top. Not always, shows Van Nooden. He recounts important papers that never got cited, and junk papers that received many citations. This comes from an institution valuing citations as a measure of importance. Nature investigated how many papers remain uncited up to ten years after publication. They arrived at a figure of 10%, but admitted later that it’s impossible to know, because citation databases are incomplete. Moreover, record-keeping differs in Russia, China and other countries. The article mentions a paper that was never ‘cited’ but was read 1,500 times and downloaded 500 times. These findings call into question the merit of citation counts as a measure of scientific quality or value, and yet citation counts have long been used to procure funding, award research, and send Big Science down avenues of research pioneered by highly-cited papers. The possibility remains that some important research could be virtually ignored.Gregor Mendel, 1822 – 1884One clear example of important work that passed under the radar for years is Mendel’s 1865 paper on inheritance. In a 3-part series of podcasts on ID the Future, Wolf-Ekkehard Lönnig discusses the Mendel case with Casey Luskin, explaining how it could ever happen that one of the most important papers in all of biology remained virtually ‘undiscovered’ for up to 70 years. Lönnig’s own study of this case shows that it was not unknown, but ignored— and why? Because it flew in the face of Darwinism. Only when the neo-Darwinists were able to incorporate Mendelism into Darwin’s theory did Mendel become famous. (Whether the neo-Darwinists succeeded in merging Mendel with Darwin, though, is another issue.)Dodgy citations, fusion milestone and a skeleton called Little Foot (Nature). Within its ‘Week in Science’ featurette for December 8-12, 2017, Nature mentions two items about trust in Big Science. The first concerns a Swedish researcher who violated ethical standards on animal experimentation, and who admitted to fabricating data. He got caught; what others have found that crime pays?The second concerns “citation pressure” in journal articles. A long list of references at the end of the paper creates an aura of reliability, but should it?Surveys of more than 12,000 scholars in 18 disciplines reveal how often they manipulate authors and citations in papers and grants. Respondents were asked if they had ever added authors whose scientific contribution was minimal, or padded reference lists with superfluous citations — either voluntarily to boost publication chances, or because an editor had asked them to do so (known as coercive citations). The researchers say the results reveal “widespread misattribution”.A graph shows this to be a widespread problem. Anywhere from 20% to 50% of respondents said they have engaged in (1) adding authors to manuscripts, (2) adding authors to grants, (3) bowing to ‘coercive citations’, (4) padding citations in manuscripts, or (5) padding citations in grants. Not stated is how many engaged in “all of the above.”A manifesto for slow science… Books in brief (Nature). Among five books reviewed on Nature‘s 13 December ‘Books in Brief’ page, one deserves note even from its title. That book is Another Science Is Possible: A Manifesto for Slow Science, by Isabelle Stengers. Here’s what the reviewer says:Sloppy, conformist, opportunistic and in thrall to a boom-and-bust economy: a worrying proportion of research, argues philosopher of science Isabelle Stengers, is little better than a rush job. Stengers calls for scientists to remember that science is tightly twined with social concerns, and cannot vanquish global issues at speed, or alone. Further, she argues that researchers need to participate in “public intelligence”: honest, coherent communication with a scientifically clued-up populace. Although convoluted at times, Stengers’s slow‑science manifesto is timely, trenchant and thoughtful.James Joule, 1818-1889In an ideal world, science should be pursued at a researcher’s own pace, driven by his or her commitment to find answers. Picture James Joule working in his father’s brewery on thermodynamics as a hobby. Independently wealthy and curious, he came up with principles of fundamental physics that have stood the test of time. Joule said, “The study of nature and her laws“ [is] “essentially a holy undertaking” [and is of] “great importance and absolute necessity in the education of youth.”Welcome to 2018, where research relies on government funding to large institutions with large teams using expensive government-funded equipment, and where hierarchies of administrators pressure their researchers to publish results quickly. It’s doubtful that Stengers’ manifesto, though “timely, trenchant and thoughtful,” will turn this big ship around any time soon. Suffice it to say that the reality of science is often less than the reputation.Take heed, those of you who think science sausage is healthy. Sausage is no cleaner than the sausage-maker, and is often less clean. Science is no more trustworthy than the individual scientists who engage in it, and often less so. Science is always mediated by fallible human beings. Even when they are honest, they don’t know everything.Trustworthy science cannot succeed on a foundation that is untrustworthy, like Darwinism, which rewards fertility, not honesty. Solomon said, “Lying lips are an abomination to the Lord, but those who act faithfully are his delight” (Proverbs 12:22). James Joule showed the proper orientation for scientific work, saying, “After the knowledge of, and obedience to, the will of God, the next aim must be to know something of His attributes of wisdom, power and goodness as evidenced by His handiwork.” See more of this great scientist’s views on scientific integrity in our biography.(Visited 393 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Tag: 上海品茶夜网 PTSD Awareness Month
June marks the month of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) awareness; a condition which approximately 300,000 service members currently suffer from (RAND, 2008). PTSD is considered a silent, invisible injury that is common in wounded warriors who have been exposed to traumatic events while performing their military responsibilities.The Veterans Affairs National Center for PTSD is challenging service professionals, families and services members to ‘Take the Step’ in raising PTSD awareness this month by offering a four-week informational guide to PTSD learning. Each week the center offers tools to understanding this invisible wound found in so many returning service members.Week 1: Learn about PTSDWeek 2: Challenge your BeliefsWeek 3: Explore OptionsWeek 4: Reach OutWhether you are a health care professional, family member or friend of a warrior who may be suffering from PTSD it is important to encourage public awareness and to provide assistance to those impacted by the condition.This post was uploaded by Rachel Brauner of the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service-Wounded Warrior Program and is part of a series of Military Family Caregiving posts published on the Military Families Learning Network blog.
Jammu: Prohibitory orders under CrPC section 144 were lifted in five districts and curfew was relaxed in Doda and Kishtwar districts, paving the way for resumption of normal activities that were badly hit after special status of Jammu and Kashmir was abrogated, officials said on Saturday. All schools and colleges reopened in five districts of the Jammu region, besides increase in attendance in government offices, a senior official said. Also Read – India gets first tranche of Swiss bank a/c details “All kind of restrictions in these five districts of Jammu, Kathua, Samba, Udhampur and Reasi have been withdrawn and all educational institutes have reopened today,” the senior official told PTI. He said the situation is limping back to normalcy as there was no report of any untoward incident from anywhere in the region since August 5, when the restrictions were imposed. All the market places and shops reopened and traffic has resumed as normal in all these districts bringing much relief to the people. Also Read – Tourists to be allowed in J&K from Thursday Friday prayers passed off peacefully in the region, the officials said. Restrictions, however, continued to be in place in Poonch, Rajouri and Ramban districts, the officials said. The administrations of 10 districts in the Jammu region had imposed prohibitory orders under CrPC Section 144 on August 5 in view of the Centre’s move, according to an official order. District Development Commissioner of Kishtwar Angrez Singh Rana said the curfew was relaxed for one hour in a phased manner in different parts of the town for the first time since its imposition on Monday. The officials said the curfew was also relaxed in Bhadarwah town and its adjoining areas in Doda district in a phased manner. The situation in Ramban, Poonch and Rajouri districts was also normal and people offered Friday prayers in a peaceful manner amid heavy deployment of forces to maintain peace, the officials said.
Tag: 上海品茶夜网 Incumbents Win Initiative 77 Passes
China’s GM cotton farmers are losing money Journal information: Nature Citation: Chinese researchers find Bt cotton controls pests while also promoting good bugs (2012, June 14) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-06-chinese-bt-cotton-pests-good.html More information: Widespread adoption of Bt cotton and insecticide decrease promotes biocontrol services, Nature (2012) doi:10.1038/nature11153AbstractOver the past 16 years, vast plantings of transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have helped to control several major insect pests and reduce the need for insecticide sprays. Because broad-spectrum insecticides kill arthropod natural enemies that provide biological control of pests, the decrease in use of insecticide sprays associated with Bt crops could enhance biocontrol services. However, this hypothesis has not been tested in terms of long-term landscape-level impacts10. On the basis of data from 1990 to 2010 at 36 sites in six provinces of northern China, we show here a marked increase in abundance of three types of generalist arthropod predators (ladybirds, lacewings and spiders) and a decreased abundance of aphid pests associated with widespread adoption of Bt cotton and reduced insecticide sprays in this crop. We also found evidence that the predators might provide additional biocontrol services spilling over from Bt cotton fields onto neighbouring crops (maize, peanut and soybean). Our work extends results from general studies evaluating ecological effects of Bt crops by demonstrating that such crops can promote biocontrol services in agricultural landscapes. Explore further © 2012 Phys.Org In their paper, the researchers report that cotton growers in China raising Bt cotton experience lower levels of bollworms than when using non genetically modified cotton and that they were able to reduce the amount of insecticide needed to control the pests as well. But perhaps more interestingly, they found that when conducting surveys in the Bt cotton fields, that many more lady bugs, spiders and other insects that feed on pests such as aphids were found, and better yet, were also more abundant in adjacent fields as well. Thus by growing Bt cotton, farmers are getting more from their fields while at the same time promoting the growth of “good” bugs that feed on other bad ones.Bt cotton is the only approved genetically modified crop being grown in China, and has been grown there since 1997. Current estimates suggest that as much as ninety five percent of all cotton now grown in that country is of the genetically modified variant, though its use is not without controversy.Most governments around the world including those in the United States, Asia, Europe and especially Africa have thus far slowed the movement of edible crops onto consumers dinner plates, fearing that some unknown disease might arise from their consumption. Even non-edible crops such as altered cotton have caused controversy due to studies being done in India that suggest that farmers that grow Bt cotton have a higher suicide rate than the rest of the country. Despite the lack of concrete proof, there persists a degree of suspicion and that has been enough to slow its use in that country.Despite the fact that genetically altered plants have been studied for decades, there is still fear among the general population that some tragedy will befall those who eat the results, thus, more research such as that being conducted in China will have to be done before common use of genetically altered crops becomes a reality. Cotton plant. Photo courtesy of USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. (Phys.org) — Because they can modify plants to either produce better fruit or in many other cases ward off disease and pests, researchers genetically alter crop plants to increase yields without adding additional costs to the process. One such success story is Bt cotton, a strain developed in the lab and so named because it harbors Bacillus thuringiensis, a bacterium that produces a chemical harmful to some insects and thus is often used as a pesticide. Farmers in the United States have been using it since 1996, and report that since that time, average yields have been up 5% even as costs have gone down due to use less of other pesticides. Now, researchers in China are reporting that not only does planting Bt cotton reduce losses from pests, it also allows other beneficial insect populations to increase not just in the cotton fields, but in those nearby growing other crops as well. The team has published its findings in the journal Nature. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Tag: 上海品茶夜网 Everything We Know About the iPhone X
Given the opportunity, Apple product reveals are all about the fanfare, and release of its tenth anniversary iPhone X in early November was no exception. So if you’re in the market for a new smartphone, pride yourself on being an early adopter of all the latest, or just wondering why it costs so much, here is what we know about the tech giant’s latest device.The company pulled out all the stops. The company revamped the design, doing away with the home button, adding a glass back and an OLED screen. It swapped out the Touch ID for facial recognition technology and creating a bezel-less display — meaning those black bands around the screen — and attaching the most expensive smartphone price tag on the market, starting at $999.Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak said back in October that he wasn’t going to be running right out to get one.Related: A Decade of iPhone Evolution (Infographic)”I’d rather wait and watch that one. I’m happy with my iPhone 8 — which is the same as the iPhone 7, which is the same as the iPhone 6, to me,” Wozniak told CNBC. “For some reason, the iPhone X is going to be the first iPhone I didn’t — on day one — upgrade to. But my wife will, so I’ll be close enough to see it.”But others jumped at the chance. The first run that went on sale on Friday, October 27th sold out in minutes, even though it went on sale at exactly 3:00 am EST.Some prospective buyers who got in early enough to pre-order the phone to get it delivered on the November 3rd release date took to eBay to sell the devices to the highest bidder. According to Fortune, at the end of October, one device was on sale for a whopping $60,000. Though currently, it seems that the price is hovering around $15,000 to $16,000.Related: 15 ‘Secret’ iPhone Hacks That Will Even Impress SiriJony Ive, Apple’s Chief Design Officer told Time that the reason for the increased price — of $999, not the mark up on eBay — was simple. “As you would expect, there’s a financial consequence to integrating the sheer amount of processing power into such a small device.”Ive also explained thought process that goes into developing a device like the iPhone X, and leaving behind technology, like the home button, that has worked to this point.“I actually think the path of holding onto features that have been effective, the path of holding onto those whatever the cost, is a path that leads to failure,” he said. “And in the short term, it’s the path the feels less risky, and it’s the path that feels more secure.”Do you agree with Ive? Are you excited for the iPhone X? Let us know in the comments.Related video: 3 Places to Find New Tech Talent How Success Happens November 28, 2017 3 min read Hear from Polar Explorers, ultra marathoners, authors, artists and a range of other unique personalities to better understand the traits that make excellence possible. Listen Now